What are MSC exosomes and what is their purpose in the cell?
Exosomes are microvesicles that are 40nm-100nm in size. They form after a two-step budding process that creates them inside membranous vesicles in an MVB (multivesicular body) in the cell.
These MVB’s fuse with the cell’s plasma membrane to release their cargo, the exosomes. Transmembrane proteins are conserved inside them and they are composed of lipids, proteins, mRNA, and miRNA.
The key advantages of exosomes are:
- Able to cross the blood-brain barrier
- They can travel via systemic therapy without the risk of clumping
- Deliver miRNA and mRNA
- They influence phenotype
- They are anti-inflammatory
- They are anti-fibrotic